Vascular access is required by the dialysis machine (dialyzer), which connects to arteries and veins by which the blood in the body is drawn out of the body and into the machine, cleaned with special filters, and then cycled back to the body. Access is initially obtained by inserting a temporary catheter in the central vein, typically in the leg. An operation is conducted later to create a fistula in the forearm. The patient is either sitting or lying on the bed for the entire period of the dialysis and does not do any other tasks. Side effects of the treatment are Fatigue, low blood pressure. The consumption of salt and water is primarily limited along the way. with certain other food items which have high potassium and phosphorus.
A peritoneal tube is inserted into the lining of the abdominal wall (peritoneum) using laparoscopic surgery, allowing access to the abdomen. This access can be used by the patient 2 weeks after it has been made. On a regular basis, via this access point, the abdominal cavity is filled with a special fluid (dialysate filter). Via the internal walls of the abdomen, the fluid cleans the blood and then flows into a collection bag which must be drained out by the patient or a caregiver. This operation can be completed at night, meaning that during the day, the patient can continue his or her usual activities.