When an aneurysm is located in the brain, it is called an intracranial or cerebral aneurysm. Symptoms of an aneurysm are only noticeable when it ruptures (bursts). When it does, it causes bleeding into the space around the brain known as the subarachnoid space. Hence, the term subarachnoid haemorrhage. This is a medical emergency as a subarachnoid haemorrhage can cause severe brain damage
and death. Nearly 3 in 5 people die and another half who survive suffer from permanent brain damage.
A healthy artery wall is thick and muscular which allows it to withstand pressure. But, on occasion, with advancing age associated with hypertension
& hyperlipidemia, a weak spot may develop. The pressure of the blood within the artery pushes it outwards into a bulge or balloon-like shape. This is called an aneurysm. While they may occur in any blood vessel, they are most common in the aorta and these are called aortic aneurysms. It may occur in the abdomen or the chest cavity with the former being more common. They increase the risk of thrombus formation (blood clots) which can cause visceral (or) limb ischemia, stroke. If an aneurysm bursts it is a medical emergency.
Trauma is any grievous injury to the body. In the aftermath of severe trauma, there can be extensive blood loss which in itself is life threatening. Similar, there are often instances where different operations result in ancillary injuries and bleeding. A simple and common example is haemorrhage after childbirth. There can be arteries which are torn or those which may not constrict as they ideally should or even loss of blood from the placenta. These instances of bleeding could be and often are life-threatening. In some cases surgery may not even be possible such as in the case of pelvic trauma or in some maxillofacial injuries. In all these cases, interventional radiologists are equipped to perform a host of minimally invasive procedures which stop the bleeding without surgery.
Stenosis means the narrowing of a passage. The blood vessels of the circulatory system perform a whole host of vital tasks. Due to a whole variety of health reasons including bad diet, lack of exercise, increasing diabetic population, hypercholesterolemia, smoking habits, genetic problems and so on, they may be prone to narrowing. This severely restricts the flow of blood to different parts of the body. Depending on the location of the occlusion, the severity of the effect varies. Interventional radiologists employ a host of minimally invasive techniques to widen the blood vessel and restore regular blood flow.
A solid tumour is an abnormal clump of cells (tumour) which does not contain cysts or liquids. A solid organ tumour is one which occurs in an organ. It may develop in various parts of the body such as the liver and kidneys. Recently, it has been found that interventional radiology techniques can be immensely beneficial in battling solid organ tumours such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).