When parents find their child has a cardiac problem, they may feel fear and isolation. However, congenital heart abnormalities are rather common, affecting about one in 100 newborns. Some of these infants have slight issues, but when a newborn is one of the one in four with a severe abnormality, the diagnosis can be extremely traumatic. Approximately fifty percent of congenital cardiac abnormalities are deemed severe and require cardiologic intervention or surgery.
Since its introduction in the 1970s and 1980s, surgery for these disorders has advanced significantly. Today, improved procedures and a greater comprehension of physiology and circulation have enabled juvenile heart surgeons to achieve remarkable results. In addition, recent discoveries have revealed the importance of genetics in heart development.
What are the reasons for choosing pediatric heart surgery?
Pediatric heart surgeries are not quite common yet, they are performed by a Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgeon when a newborn is born with certain abnormalities of the heart. These abnormalities are often referred to as congenital heart defects.
What are congenital heart defects referred to as?
The phrase congenital heart defect encompasses a wide range of cardiac defects that arise during pregnancy. These anomalies can alter the normal blood flow through the heart and influence how a new heart develops and functions throughout a person’s lifetime.
These are the most prevalent types of congenital cardiac defects:
Although there are numerous types of congenital heart defects, the most common ones involve the inner walls of the heart, the valves, or the main blood arteries that supply the heart. Some of these flaws will never require treatment, while others may entail several structural problems and necessitate immediate surgical intervention. Speak to your specialist to get an understanding about the pediatric heart surgery cost.
The following are examples of frequent congenital cardiac defects:
Atrial septal defect (ASD):
- Normal at birth, a “hole” in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart should close after birth.
- If it does not close, irregular blood flow might occur within the heart. ASD-affected children exhibit little symptoms.
- Depending on the extent of the hole, closing it with a catheter-based approach or open-heart surgery can frequently avert major complications in the future.
Ventricular septal defect (VSD):
- Typically, the wall that divides the two bottom pumping chambers of the heart is intact.
- However, if a ‘hole’ or VSD is present, increasing left ventricular pressure might cause blood to flow into the right ventricle.
- This can cause excess blood to be pushed into the lungs, leading to lung congestion.
- If the hole is large, the infant may experience stunted growth and require surgery to prevent congestive heart failure in infants and permanent damage to the pulmonary arteries.
Tetralogy of Fallot:
This more sophisticated flaw consists of four elements, which are as follows:
- A narrowing of the blood vessel that carries oxygen-depleted blood to the lungs; a large hole in the two lower heart chambers (or VSD); an aorta that lies over the VSD hole, causing oxygen-depleted blood to flow directly into the aorta instead of the pulmonary artery; and a thickening of the right pumping chamber muscle; all of these factors contribute to pulmonary hypertension (which is working harder than normal).
- The majority of infants with tetralogy of Fallot get open-heart surgery.
Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA):
- This is a complicated heart abnormality in which the two big blood arteries exiting the heart are linked to the incorrect sides.
- In this circumstance, the oxygen-poor blood is returned to the body rather than traveling to the lungs.
- And inversely, the oxygen-rich blood is returned to the lungs instead of the body.
- This results in a condition where the body is oxygen-starved.
- This disease is fatal without surgery, which is normally performed between one and two weeks after birth.
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS):
- A highly intricate flaw in which the left lower pumping chamber is either nonexistent or undersized.
- The aorta, the primary blood conduit that carries blood to the body, is likewise underdeveloped.
- A newborn will undergo three procedures between the ages of 2 and 3 years, beginning at birth.
What are the major causes for congenital heart defects?
If your child was born with a congenital heart defect, you may believe that you did something wrong during your pregnancy to create the issue. However, pediatric heart specialists rarely understand why congenital heart abnormalities occur.
There may be a genetic component to certain cardiac abnormalities. For instance, a parent with a congenital heart problem may be more likely to have a child with the condition than other individuals. Rarely, multiple children in a family are born with a heart abnormality.
Congenital cardiac problems are common among children with genetic diseases, such as Down syndrome. In fact, half of all Down syndrome infants are born with congenital cardiac abnormalities.
Several congenital cardiac problems, such as septal defects, have also been related to smoking during pregnancy. Consult the best pediatric cardiothoracic surgeon in Coimbatore to provide the best cardiac care for your child.
Outlook for living with congenital heart defects:
The prognosis for a child with a congenital cardiac abnormality is far better than it was in the past. The majority of children with heart abnormalities survive to maturity and are able to lead active, productive lives due to advances in testing and treatment.
As they mature and become adults, many of these children will require only sporadic visits to a Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgeon.
Children with significant heart abnormalities require long-term, specialized care from Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgeons. This will assist them in maintaining optimal health and a high quality of life.